Summer has arrived! Whether you’re enduring the humid heat, seeking refuge under shade, or tiptoeing on searing beach sand, the advent of summer ushers in extended daylight hours and, of course, higher temperatures.
But what exactly fuels summer’s sizzle? The answer lies in our planet’s dance around the most anticipated star—the sun. More precisely, it’s all about the Earth’s unique solar relationship. Deep dive into the intriguing science of the season and enhance your understanding of the summer heat.
Take Summer Learning for a Spin
First things first: The primary contributor to those toasty summer days has to do with the position of the Earth relative to the Sun. As Earth’s position shifts, in turn, it causes the seasons to change. This happens in two ways:
1. The Earth completes one rotation around the Sun each year. At the same time, the Earth rotates daily on its own axis.
2. The Earth’s axis is tilted about 23.5 degrees from the vertical.
Now that we know why Earth’s rotation makes a difference, let’s look at how it happens. We’ll focus first on the Northern Hemisphere. As the Northern Hemisphere tilts slightly towards the sun, the sun’s rays are more direct and intense. These longer days and direct rays cause the Earth to absorb a greater amount of heat in this region. With more sunlight in June through September, the Northern Hemisphere experiences its warmest season, which is what we call “summer.”
Conversely, the opposite happens in the Southern Hemisphere, which tilts away from the sun during these months. This tilt causes colder weather months, or “winter.” The Southern Hemisphere experiences its warmest months in December through March. The seasons in the two hemispheres are always opposite.
The onset of summer starts with the summer solstice, the day when the noon sun is the highest. This occurs annually on June 21 or 22, the longest days of the year.
People around the world celebrate the summer solstice in many unique ways. One of the most recognized festivities takes place at Stonehenge in England, where thousands gather to “express their devotion to the sun.”1 In India, people commemorate with mass yoga sessions. In Malta, ancient sites are the center of solstice celebrations. In Eastern Europe, Spain, and Norway, crowds gather to enjoy time together around (sometimes giant) bonfires. And in Alaska, people take advantage of the midnight sun to enjoy street fairs, baseball games, and festivals.2,3
Getting to the Heat of it
We’re not done yet! Let’s talk more about why temperatures change. We have looked at the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but what about those areas in between? The changes in weather during each season depend on how close a region is to the Equator.
Places near the equator receive a more consistent amount of direct sunlight throughout the year due to how the Earth is tilted. Therefore, instead of more drastic seasonal changes as in the more northern and southern regions, the seasons remain relatively similar. Weather patterns may change during certain times of the year, such as rainy or dry periods, but overall, temperatures near the Equator are generally warm year-round.
Fun Fact! The ability for life on Earth to exist as we know it depends on the type of star we revolve around. The habitable zone, or “goldilocks zone,” is the region around a star that allows the planets orbiting that star to contain water in its liquid form, and, therefore, support life. If these zones are hotter than the sun, liquid water would evaporate, and if they are colder than the sun, water would be frozen. Luckily for us, our orbital region around the Sun is just right.
On the contrary, the North and South Poles receive less direct sunlight. As the farthest points from the Equator, temperatures in these poles stay cold throughout the year, even during the summers. And the seasons look quite a bit different, too. During the winter, these regions experience more hours of darkness, even in the daytime. In the summer, the sun shines late at night, though this “midnight sun” is not strong or direct enough to make the weather warm.
Summer Around the Globe
Summer looks different everywhere! Let’s take a look at a few interesting summer phenomena.
Six Sizzling Summer Facts
Explore the science of summer heat and countless other topics with Britannica! The information in this special summer blog was sourced from Britannica School (Elementary, Middle, and High School), Britannica ImageQuest. Not a subscriber? Contact us to learn more.